The establishment and application of modern electrostatic technology are briefly described
In 1922, van DE graaf invented a practical electrostatic starting motor. In 1931, the metal ball generator with a radius of 1 meter invented by van der graaf can produce a high voltage of about 1 million volts (to the ground), and the van der graaf generator with a positive charge is applied as a positive ion accelerating power source in scientific research. The van DE graaff generator, which generates negative electricity, is used in X-ray generators with high penetrability.
From 1931 to 1933, m. Knoll and e. laska of Germany established the basic principle of electron microscope and made the first transmission electron microscope.
In 1936, g. destrio of France discovered the field luminescence phenomenon.
In 1937, carlson invented the dry electrostatic copier.
Electrostatic research in the early 20th century also includes electrostatic spraying, lightning monitoring, military electrostatic detection and many other aspects.
Since the mid 20th century, with the rapid development of modern industrial production, and the rapid popularization and application of polymer materials, on the one hand, some of the resistivity of high polymer materials such as rubber, plastic, etc. Products are widely used, on the other hand some static sensitive material production and use, such as light oil, artificial devices, solid state electronics, microelectronics products, etc. Industrial and mining enterprises are increasingly affected by static electricity, and the losses and consequences caused by static electricity are becoming more and more prominent. In the space field, electrostatic discharge causes failure or even disaster of rocket and satellite launch, and interferes with the operation of space vehicles. In the petrochemical industry, there were 116 fires and explosions caused by static electricity in the United States from 1960 to 1975. In less than a month, 1969. Three 200,000-ton cruise ships in the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom exploded in succession due to static electricity generated when washing their cabins, which aroused the concern of scientists around the world on static protection. Many industrial developed countries have established electrostatic research institutions, engaged in the application of electrostatic technology and electrostatic hazard protection research work.